2. [4], Ground-glass opacity is most often used to describe findings in high-resolution CT imaging of the thorax, although it is also used when describing chest radiographs. It is often the result of occlusion of small pulmonary arteries or obstruction of small airways leading to air trapping. Persistent pure ground-glass opacity lung nodules >/= 10 mm in diameter at CT scan: histopathologic comparisons and prognostic implications. Broadly, a diffuse pattern of GGO can be caused by displacement of air with fluid, inflammatory debris, or fibrosis. Chest. This discussion focuses on the management of … Radiographics. However, long-term pulmonary changes have been seen in patients after recovery from SARS and MERS, suggesting the possibility of similar long-term complications in patients who have recovered from acute COVID-19 infection. Jeong YJ, Kim KI, Seo IJ et-al. they are hazy areas that do not obscure the underlying structures of the lung, such as … [3] A defining feature of these GGOs is the lack of involvement of the interlobular septum. [6], Inflammation and fibrosis can also cause diffuse GGOs. It is typically persistent over long-term imaging follow-up and shares a similar appearance to malignant nodular GGOs. [13] It is often suggestive of organizing pneumonia,[14] but is only seen in about 20% of individuals with this condition. Most bacterial infections lead to lobar consolidation, while atypical pneumonias may cause GGOs. isolated diffuse ground-glass opacification, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHS), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), adenocarcinoma in situ or minimally invasive, hockey stick sign (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), stepladder sign (intracapsular breast implant rupture), stepladder sign (small bowel obstruction), eccentric target sign (cerebral toxoplasmosis), trident sign (persistent primitive trigeminal artery), ginkgo leaf sign (subcutaneous emphysema), butterfly shape of the grey matter of the spinal cord, snake-eye appearance (cervical spinal cord), caput medusae sign (developmental venous anomaly), ice cream cone sign (middle ear ossicles), ice cream cone sign (vestibular schwannoma), in total anomalous pulmonary venous return, on expiratory acquisitions, which can be detected if the posterior membranous wall of the trachea is flattened or bowed inwards, eosinophilic drug reactions: peripheral airspace consolidation and GGO, neoplastic processes with a lepidic proliferation pattern. Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma in situ are typically manifested as pure GGOs, whereas more advanced adenocarcinomas may include a larger … Microscopically, enlarged airspaces surrounded by fibrosis with hyperplastic or bronchiolar type epithelium are present. [19] In many cases the most severe pulmonary CT abnormalities occurred within 2 weeks after symptoms began. In pathology, honeycomb lung refers to the characteristic appearance of variably sized cysts in a background of densely scarred lung tissue. [6], A mosaic pattern of GGO refers to multiple irregular areas of both increased attenuation and decreased attenuation on CT. 246 (3): 697-722. corkscrew sign (diffuse esophageal spasm), bunch of grapes sign (botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma), bunch of grapes sign (intracranial tuberculoma), bunch of grapes sign (multicystic dysplastic kidney), bunch of grapes sign (intraosseous hemangiomas). Ground glass opacity is just a description of an imaging characteristic noted on CT. [23], The first usage of "ground-glass opacity" by a major radiological society occurred in a 1984 publication of the American Journal of Roentgenology.

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